Encycolorpedia

Evonik-Degussa 3015P Sanded Birch / #d2c5a7 Codice Colore Hex

#d2c5a7 Paint ChipIl codice colore esadecimale #d2c5a7 è una sfumatura medio chiaro di giallo. Nel modello di colori RGB #d2c5a7 è composto di 82.35% rosso, 77.25% verde e 65.49% blu. Nel sistema di colori HSL #d2c5a7 ha una tonalità di 42° (gradi), 32% di saturazione e chiarezza del 74%. Il colore ha una lunghezza d'onda approssimativa di 575.91 nm.

Variazioni di colore

Nomi colori correlati

Combinazioni di colori

Scaricare: GIMP GPL Adobe ASE (Adobe Swatch Exchange) Sketch Palette

#d2c5a7 gradiente lineare al complementare #9db4dc

  1. #d2c5a7
  2. #cbc2b0
  3. #c3bfb9
  4. #bbbcc2
  5. #b2b9cb
  6. #a8b7d3
  7. #9db4dc

Colori monocromatici

  1. #ab9f82
  2. #b8ac8e
  3. #c5b89b
  4. #d2c5a7
  5. #dfd2b4
  6. #ecdfc0
  7. #faeccd

Tinte e sfumature

#d2c5a7 al nero

  1. #d2c5a7
  2. #daceb5
  3. #e1d8c4
  4. #e9e2d2
  5. #f0ebe1
  6. #f8f5f0
  7. #ffffff

#d2c5a7 al bianco

  1. #d2c5a7
  2. #aca189
  3. #877f6c
  4. #635e51
  5. #423f37
  6. #24221e
  7. #000000

Vernici

Vernici corrispondenti

Pitture simili

  1. Taubmans

    1. ★ Speciality / T12 5.C10
      #d3c5a8
      ΔE = 0.480 / LRV ≈ 56.6%
    2. ★ Taupe Linen / T12 57.C12
      #cac2a4
      ΔE = 2.149 / LRV ≈ 53.8%
  2. Benjamin Moore

    1. ★ Crisp Khaki / 234
      #d2c6a9
      ΔE = 0.512 / LRV ≈ 57.0%
    2. ★ Williamsburg Stone / CW-25
      #d3c8a9
      ΔE = 1.154 / LRV ≈ 58.0%
  3. Federal Standard

    1. ★ Federal Standard 16555
      #d2c6a9
      ΔE = 0.512 / LRV ≈ 57.0%
    2. ★ Federal Standard 26555
      #d5c9ac
      ΔE = 1.450 / LRV ≈ 58.9%
  4. Ralph Lauren

    1. ★ Barn Owl White / RLNA216
      #d1c4a8
      ΔE = 0.692 / LRV ≈ 55.9%
    2. ★ Oatmeal / RLWW215
      #d0c4ab
      ΔE = 1.570 / LRV ≈ 55.8%
  5. TRUMATCH

    1. ★ 9-e4
      #d1c6a7
      ΔE = 0.746 / LRV ≈ 56.7%
    2. 10-e4
      #d1c9a5
      ΔE = 2.659 / LRV ≈ 58.0%
  6. Caparol

    1. ★ 2208-Y27R
      #d0c4a8
      ΔE = 0.759 / LRV ≈ 55.7%
    2. ★ 17/18
      #ccc0a0
      ΔE = 2.076 / LRV ≈ 53.1%
  7. Natural Color System / NCS

    1. ★ S 2005-G90Y
      #d4c6aa
      ΔE = 0.884 / LRV ≈ 57.3%
    2. ★ S 2005-Y
      #d5c4a7
      ΔE = 1.318 / LRV ≈ 56.4%
  8. Behr

    1. ★ 770C-3 Sand Fossil
      #d1c5aa
      ΔE = 0.938 / LRV ≈ 56.4%
    2. Brown Bread ICC-60
      #cfbea1
      ΔE = 2.558 / LRV ≈ 52.7%
  9. Evonik-Degussa

    1. ★ 4045P Pebble Walk
      #d2c7ab
      ΔE = 1.023 / LRV ≈ 57.5%
    2. ★ 856
      #d2c0a3
      ΔE = 2.132 / LRV ≈ 54.0%
  10. NSU

    1. ★ Lilienweiss 505 / 102
      #d0c2a5
      ΔE = 1.085 / LRV ≈ 54.7%
  11. Alcro

    1. ★ Sparris
      #d0c6a6
      ΔE = 1.175 / LRV ≈ 56.6%
    2. ★ Gratrut
      #d3c9ac
      ΔE = 1.553 / LRV ≈ 58.6%
  12. Ford

    1. ★ Pueblo Gold
      #d0c5a4
      ΔE = 1.193 / LRV ≈ 56.0%
    2. ★ Tahiti Tan
      #d5c7ac
      ΔE = 1.353 / LRV ≈ 58.0%
  13. Dulux Australia

    1. ★ Pristine Sand / I2
      #d4c3a5
      ΔE = 1.300 / LRV ≈ 55.7%
    2. Sprinkled Sage / I65
      #cdc29e
      ΔE = 2.450 / LRV ≈ 54.0%
  14. Little Greene

    1. ★ Clapperboard
      #d5c7a5
      ΔE = 1.412 / LRV ≈ 57.7%
    2. ★ Slaked Lime Deep
      #d2c7ae
      ΔE = 1.733 / LRV ≈ 57.6%
  15. GM / General Motors

    1. ★ Pannacotta (Stone)
      #cdc4a6
      ΔE = 1.416 / LRV ≈ 55.2%
    2. Light Sandalwood
      #d3c1a7
      ΔE = 2.342 / LRV ≈ 54.8%
  16. Sigma

    1. ★ Yellow Ocre / S 2010-Y10R
      #d4c9ab
      ΔE = 1.427 / LRV ≈ 58.7%
    2. Orange Terra / S 2010-Y40R
      #d7c2a8
      ΔE = 2.969 / LRV ≈ 55.9%
  17. Sto

    1. ★ 31423
      #d6c8a7
      ΔE = 1.429 / LRV ≈ 58.4%
    2. ★ 32122
      #d6c3a5
      ΔE = 1.864 / LRV ≈ 56.0%
  18. Crown Diamond

    1. ★ 7383-31 Fenugreek
      #d2c2a6
      ΔE = 1.433 / LRV ≈ 55.0%
  19. Jotun

    1. ★ 0092 / Herregård
      #d3c8ad
      ΔE = 1.449 / LRV ≈ 58.2%
    2. 1384 / Kyst
      #cfbd9f
      ΔE = 2.941 / LRV ≈ 52.2%
  20. Albany Paint

    1. ★ Wavendon
      #d5c5a3
      ΔE = 1.451 / LRV ≈ 56.7%
    2. ★ Canvas
      #d6caa8
      ΔE = 2.072 / LRV ≈ 59.4%
  21. Colortrend

    1. ★ 0330
      #d0c3a1
      ΔE = 1.487 / LRV ≈ 55.0%
    2. 0378
      #cac4ac
      ΔE = 2.785 / LRV ≈ 55.0%
  22. Dunn-Edwards

    1. ★ Pale Beach / 1722
      #d6c5a9
      ΔE = 1.512 / LRV ≈ 57.1%
    2. Light Aspiration / 1791
      #dacba7
      ΔE = 2.853 / LRV ≈ 60.4%
  23. California Paints

    1. ★ DE 6199 - Pale Beach
      #d6c5a9
      ΔE = 1.512 / LRV ≈ 57.1%
    2. ★ DE 6192 - Nomadic Taupe
      #d2c6ae
      ΔE = 1.900 / LRV ≈ 57.1%
  24. PPG Pittsburgh Paints

    1. ★ Stylish / PPG1101-3
      #cec1a5
      ΔE = 1.525 / LRV ≈ 54.0%
    2. Safari / PPG1111-3
      #d0c6a1
      ΔE = 2.417 / LRV ≈ 56.4%
  25. Martha Stewart Living

    1. ★ Scone H06
      #d7c7ab
      ΔE = 1.564 / LRV ≈ 58.2%
    2. Winter Surf G23
      #c9c3aa
      ΔE = 2.763 / LRV ≈ 54.4%
  26. Sikkens

    1. ★ G0.10.75
      #d6c9ad
      ΔE = 1.621 / LRV ≈ 59.1%
    2. G0.10.70
      #c9bfa6
      ΔE = 2.839 / LRV ≈ 52.4%
  27. Pratt & Lambert

    1. ★ Grissell Hay Sea Green Medium CW412
      #d5c6a3
      ΔE = 1.632 / LRV ≈ 57.2%
    2. ★ Sesame 12-29
      #d9c9a9
      ΔE = 1.929 / LRV ≈ 59.4%
  28. Kelly-Moore

    1. ★ Mission Tan / 302
      #d5c3a6
      ΔE = 1.646 / LRV ≈ 55.9%
    2. Pale Portabella / KM3988-2
      #dccba9
      ΔE = 2.870 / LRV ≈ 60.8%
  29. Brighto Paints

    1. ★ 9017 Stone
      #d8c8a7
      ΔE = 1.737 / LRV ≈ 58.7%
    2. 9024 Apricot
      #d8c3a5
      ΔE = 2.459 / LRV ≈ 56.3%
  30. Chrysler

    1. ★ Champagne
      #cec3aa
      ΔE = 1.754 / LRV ≈ 55.1%
    2. ★ Beige
      #cdbf9f
      ΔE = 2.248 / LRV ≈ 52.7%
  31. Sico

    1. ★ 6196-31 Artichoke Dip
      #d8c6a5
      ΔE = 1.815 / LRV ≈ 57.7%
    2. 6195-31 Rice Paper
      #d4c7b2
      ΔE = 2.986 / LRV ≈ 58.1%
  32. Glidden

    1. ★ Straw
      #cec0a4
      ΔE = 1.830 / LRV ≈ 53.5%
    2. Barely Olive
      #d2cbaf
      ΔE = 2.576 / LRV ≈ 59.5%
  33. Vista Paint

    1. ★ Pale Portabella
      #d3c2a0
      ΔE = 1.852 / LRV ≈ 55.0%
    2. Beach Bum
      #cbc5ab
      ΔE = 2.417 / LRV ≈ 55.6%
  34. McCormick Paints

    1. ★ Pale Portabella
      #d3c2a0
      ΔE = 1.852 / LRV ≈ 55.0%
    2. 120 Kingston Clay
      #cfc9a7
      ΔE = 2.705 / LRV ≈ 57.8%
  35. Berger

    1. ★ Pale Portabella / 8513
      #d3c2a0
      ΔE = 1.852 / LRV ≈ 55.0%
    2. Beach Bum / 8481
      #cbc5ab
      ΔE = 2.417 / LRV ≈ 55.6%
  36. Scib Paints

    1. ★ Pale Portabella / 8513
      #d3c2a0
      ΔE = 1.852 / LRV ≈ 55.0%
    2. Beach Bum / 8481
      #cbc5ab
      ΔE = 2.417 / LRV ≈ 55.6%
  37. Cloverdale Paint

    1. ★ Beach Bum / 8481
      #cfc6ad
      ΔE = 1.857 / LRV ≈ 56.7%
    2. Pale Portabella / 8513
      #d7c2a3
      ΔE = 2.477 / LRV ≈ 55.7%
  38. Rodda Paint

    1. ★ Beach Bum 8481
      #cfc6ad
      ΔE = 1.857 / LRV ≈ 56.7%
    2. Pale Portabella 8513
      #d7c2a3
      ΔE = 2.477 / LRV ≈ 55.7%
  39. Devoe Paint

    1. ★ Distant Mountain / 70YY 57/098
      #cec6ac
      ΔE = 1.860 / LRV ≈ 56.5%
    2. Lexington Park / 50YY 57/082
      #cec5ae
      ΔE = 2.346 / LRV ≈ 56.1%
  40. AMC

    1. ★ Almond Beige
      #d9c7a8
      ΔE = 1.874 / LRV ≈ 58.4%
  41. Tikkurila

    1. ★ H457
      #ccc2a8
      ΔE = 1.888 / LRV ≈ 54.2%
    2. 2100
      #d8c6a1
      ΔE = 2.553 / LRV ≈ 57.6%
  42. UMM

    1. ★ Blanc Polaire / 103
      #ccc5a9
      ΔE = 1.944 / LRV ≈ 55.6%
  43. Flügger

    1. ★ Kardemomme (U-504)
      #d5c3a8
      ΔE = 1.946 / LRV ≈ 56.0%
    2. Mørk Khaki (U-755)
      #cabfa6
      ΔE = 2.712 / LRV ≈ 52.6%
  44. British Standard

    1. ★ BS 4800 10 B 17 - Oatmeal / Greystone / Hopsack
      #d3caad
      ΔE = 1.959 / LRV ≈ 59.1%
    2. ★ BS 2660 BS 4-047 - Silver gleam
      #d4caaf
      ΔE = 2.052 / LRV ≈ 59.3%
  45. Valspar Paint

    1. ★ Bayou Shade
      #d1c6a2
      ΔE = 2.000 / LRV ≈ 56.6%
    2. Brown Buzz
      #d4ccb0
      ΔE = 2.706 / LRV ≈ 60.3%
  46. Farrow & Ball

    1. ★ Stony Ground / 211
      #d9caab
      ΔE = 2.039 / LRV ≈ 59.9%
    2. Savage Ground / 213
      #d8c6a2
      ΔE = 2.329 / LRV ≈ 57.6%
  47. Olympic

    1. ★ Classic Khaki D12-2
      #d6c7ae
      ΔE = 2.042 / LRV ≈ 58.2%
    2. Weeping Willow C11-3
      #cac1a1
      ΔE = 2.326 / LRV ≈ 53.3%
  48. Sherwin-Williams

    1. ★ Sand Beach - 7529
      #d4c5ad
      ΔE = 2.100 / LRV ≈ 56.9%
    2. Buckram Binding - 0036
      #d9c3a6
      ΔE = 2.828 / LRV ≈ 56.5%
  49. Peintures MF

    1. ★ BD203-1
      #d4c5ad
      ΔE = 2.100 / LRV ≈ 56.9%
    2. AD135-1
      #dcc9ab
      ΔE = 2.658 / LRV ≈ 59.9%
  50. Dulux

    1. ★ 70YY 59/140
      #d0c9ad
      ΔE = 2.155 / LRV ≈ 58.2%
    2. 45YY 53/151
      #ccbea2
      ΔE = 2.513 / LRV ≈ 52.3%
  51. CIL

    1. ★ Ivory Sampler
      #d8c4a4
      ΔE = 2.156 / LRV ≈ 56.8%
    2. Mushroom Cap
      #d3c0a5
      ΔE = 2.538 / LRV ≈ 54.3%
  52. Kansai Paint

    1. ★ Light Mushroom
      #cbc0a5
      ΔE = 2.158 / LRV ≈ 53.1%
    2. Sand Stone
      #cec0aa
      ΔE = 3.000 / LRV ≈ 53.7%
  53. Tollens

    1. ★ TF239-1
      #dacaaa
      ΔE = 2.240 / LRV ≈ 60.1%
    2. Karité
      #ccbd9f
      ΔE = 2.812 / LRV ≈ 51.7%
  54. Porter Paints

    1. ★ Soft Suede / 313-3
      #d9cbad
      ΔE = 2.262 / LRV ≈ 60.5%
    2. Armadillo / ATC-96
      #d8c8b1
      ΔE = 2.948 / LRV ≈ 59.1%
  55. Clark+Kensington

    1. Perfect Balance / 25B-4
      #cbc5a6
      ΔE = 2.305 / LRV ≈ 55.4%
    2. Playas de Cancun / N-W25
      #d6cbb2
      ΔE = 2.662 / LRV ≈ 60.2%
  56. Resene

    1. Half Pavlova Y81-031-084
      #cbbfa0
      ΔE = 2.328 / LRV ≈ 52.5%
    2. Fossil Y84-023-085
      #d5cbb2
      ΔE = 2.665 / LRV ≈ 60.1%
  57. Laura Ashley

    1. 908 Olive 2
      #d6c8a3
      ΔE = 2.342 / LRV ≈ 58.3%
    2. 42-18 Pussy Willow
      #d3c7a1
      ΔE = 2.532 / LRV ≈ 57.3%
  58. Pantone / PMS

    1. 13-1009 TCX
      #dac7ab
      ΔE = 2.393 / LRV ≈ 58.7%
    2. 2323 UP
      #c9c2a5
      ΔE = 2.411 / LRV ≈ 53.7%
  59. Asian Paints

    1. Beach House / 8481
      #cbc5ab
      ΔE = 2.417 / LRV ≈ 55.6%
    2. Sunshine Sand / 9394
      #c9bf9f
      ΔE = 2.734 / LRV ≈ 52.2%
  60. Brillux

    1. 09.09.12
      #d1bf9f
      ΔE = 2.420 / LRV ≈ 53.3%
    2. 03.06.12
      #d2cab2
      ΔE = 2.746 / LRV ≈ 59.2%
  61. Homebase

    1. Pecan
      #d5c4ac
      ΔE = 2.430 / LRV ≈ 56.6%
    2. Pecan
      #d6c4ac
      ΔE = 2.648 / LRV ≈ 56.8%
  62. ICI Paints

    1. Manuscript 40YY 60/103
      #d1c5af
      ΔE = 2.475 / LRV ≈ 56.6%
    2. Ivory Coast 40YY 64/165
      #ddcbab
      ΔE = 2.954 / LRV ≈ 61.0%
  63. UNKNOWN

    1. Triumph Ivory / BEC1893
      #d6c49f
      ΔE = 2.498 / LRV ≈ 56.3%
  64. Panther

    1. Off White / GL35
      #d6c49f
      ΔE = 2.498 / LRV ≈ 56.3%
  65. Willys

    1. Alpine White / 563
      #d6c49f
      ΔE = 2.498 / LRV ≈ 56.3%
  66. Zoffany

    1. Stone
      #cbc6a8
      ΔE = 2.505 / LRV ≈ 55.9%
    2. Wheatfield
      #d1bea1
      ΔE = 2.798 / LRV ≈ 53.0%
  67. 1829

    1. Caenstone
      #dac6aa
      ΔE = 2.528 / LRV ≈ 58.2%
    2. Deep Sung Cream
      #dbc5a7
      ΔE = 2.849 / LRV ≈ 57.8%
  68. Dupont

    1. CAS842
      #cdc7ae
      ΔE = 2.531 / LRV ≈ 56.9%
    2. CAS826
      #d4c5af
      ΔE = 2.723 / LRV ≈ 57.0%
  69. Toyo Ink

    1. CF10598
      #d8c6a1
      ΔE = 2.553 / LRV ≈ 57.6%
    2. CF10577
      #dccaae
      ΔE = 2.850 / LRV ≈ 60.5%
  70. Earthpaint

    1. 5-14-3 Bullrush
      #ccbfa6
      ΔE = 2.567 / LRV ≈ 52.9%
  71. Bristol

    1. Burma Buff / P190-N3
      #d1bfa4
      ΔE = 2.570 / LRV ≈ 53.5%
    2. Pavestone / P189-N3
      #d4c2aa
      ΔE = 2.694 / LRV ≈ 55.5%
  72. Coronado Paint

    1. 8481 - Beach Bum
      #cabfa5
      ΔE = 2.581 / LRV ≈ 52.5%
    2. 8482 - Sand Castle
      #d4cbb3
      ΔE = 2.895 / LRV ≈ 60.0%
  73. General Paint

    1. Sasha / CL 1923W
      #d5ccac
      ΔE = 2.591 / LRV ≈ 60.3%
    2. So Stunned / CLC 1216W
      #d3c9b3
      ΔE = 2.893 / LRV ≈ 58.9%
  74. Nippon Paint

    1. Melancholy / NP N 1825 P
      #cbc19e
      ΔE = 2.617 / LRV ≈ 53.3%
    2. Old Barn / NP BGG 1713 P
      #ddcaaa
      ΔE = 2.894 / LRV ≈ 60.5%
  75. Duron

    1. Universal Khaki
      #d6c4ac
      ΔE = 2.648 / LRV ≈ 56.8%
    2. Ecru
      #d5c39d
      ΔE = 2.800 / LRV ≈ 55.6%
  76. Australian Standard AS2700

    1. X34 Driftwood
      #d5c4ad
      ΔE = 2.718 / LRV ≈ 56.6%
    2. Y43 Parchment
      #d3c9a3
      ΔE = 2.868 / LRV ≈ 58.3%
  77. Levis

    1. Atl Ombre E4
      #d9c3a4
      ΔE = 2.731 / LRV ≈ 56.5%
    2. Subtle Bean
      #cabfa7
      ΔE = 2.871 / LRV ≈ 52.6%
  78. Dutch Boy

    1. Futonic
      #cbc4ad
      ΔE = 2.742 / LRV ≈ 55.2%
    2. Remember The Alamo
      #cdbd9f
      ΔE = 2.820 / LRV ≈ 51.9%
  79. Diamond Vogel

    1. Inviting Gesture / 0393
      #cec6a1
      ΔE = 2.762 / LRV ≈ 56.1%
    2. October Harvest / 0266
      #d3bf9d
      ΔE = 2.906 / LRV ≈ 53.5%
  80. Craig & Rose

    1. Dune
      #dac4a6
      ΔE = 2.782 / LRV ≈ 57.1%
  81. Van Hool

    1. Light Grey / 905082
      #ccc4ae
      ΔE = 2.788 / LRV ≈ 55.4%
  82. Volkswagen

    1. Calahari Beige
      #d0c59e
      ΔE = 2.904 / LRV ≈ 55.8%
  83. Sanderson

    1. Coffee Tone
      #cebea5
      ΔE = 2.912 / LRV ≈ 52.7%

Simulazione daltonismo

Monochromacy

Dichromacy

Tricromazia

#d2c5a7 Esempi HTML e CSS

#d2c5a7 primo piano

La vita è un sogno.

<p style="color: #d2c5a7">…</p>

#d2c5a7 sfondo

A caval donato non si guarda in bocca.

<p style="background-color: #d2c5a7">…</p>

#d2c5a7 ombra testo

L’amore è cieco.

<p style="text-shadow: 0.1em 0.1em 0.15em #d2c5a7">…</p>

Grafico di composizione

Spazi dei colori

Decimale
13813159
Binario
11010010, 11000101, 10100111
Esadecimale
#d2c5a7
LRV
≈ 56.4%
Esagono corto più vicino
#dca ΔE = 3.134
RGB
rgb(210, 197, 167)
RGBA
rgba(210, 197, 167, 1.0)
rg cromaticità
r: 0.366, g: 0.343, b: 0.291
RYB
rosso: 0.728%, giallo: 0.824%, blu: 0.655%
Android / android.graphics.Color
-2964057 / 0xffd2c5a7
HSL
hsl(42, 32%, 74%)
HSLA
hsla(42, 32%, 74%, 1.0)
HSV / HSB
tonalità: 42° (41.860), saturazione: 20% (0.205), valore: 82% (0.824)
HSP
tonalità: 41.860, saturazione: 20.476%, luminosità percepita: 77.590%
HSLuv (HUSL)
H: 68.017, S: 28.160, L: 79.855
Cubehelix
H: 39.943, S: 0.371, L: 0.775
TSL
T: 2.254, S: 0.046, L: 0.774
CMYK
turchese: 0% (0.000), magenta: 6% (0.062), giallo: 20% (0.205), colore chiave: 18% (0.176)
CMY
turchese: 18% (0.176), magenta: 23% (0.227), giallo: 35% (0.345)
XYZ
X: 53.520, Y: 56.425, Z: 44.624
xyY
x: 0.346, y: 0.365, Y: 56.425
CIELab
L: 79.855, a: -0.285, b: 16.709
CIELuv
L: 79.855, u: 9.598, v: 23.775
CIELCH / LCHab
L: 79.855, C: 16.711, H: 90.978
CIELUV / LCHuv
L: 79.855, C: 25.639, H: 68.017
Hunter-Lab
L: 75.117, a: -4.276, b: 17.360
CIECAM02
J: 73.554, C: 14.077, h: 85.259, Q: 168.972, M: 12.310, s: 26.991, H: 92.319
OSA-UCS
leggerezza: -10.012, giallo: 2.492, verde: 0.028
LMS
L: 56.213, M: 58.398, S: 44.811
YCbCr
Y: 185.624, Cb: 112.906, Cr: 135.837
YCgCo
Y: 192.750, Cg: 4.250, Co: 63.250
YDbDr
Y: 197.467, Db: -45.840, Dr: -23.839
YPbPr
Y: 197.609, Pb: -16.495, Pr: 7.880
xvYCC
Y: 185.711, Cb: 113.510, Cr: 134.922
YIQ
Y: 197.467, I: 17.382, Q: -6.585
YUV
Y: 197.467, U: -14.991, V: 10.995
Sistema Munsell dei Colori
5Y 8/2 ΔE = 1.963
Colore del marchio
IKEA ΔE = 14.236

Colori casuali

Rosso

Verde

Blu